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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/

FastStats A-Z: Public Health Statistics

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/Default.htm

National Vital Statistics System

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/

 

 

Chronic diseases —including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer— account for some of the most common health problems in the United States, according to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Yet many of these chronic diseases are preventable, as they’re linked to poor diet and lifestyle choices including tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity.

The CDC reports some sobering statistics about Americans:

  • Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death and disability.
  • 70% of annual deaths are due to chronic diseases.
  • These preventable conditions not only compromise quality of life, they add to rising health care costs—75% of our health care dollars are devoted to treat these diseases.
  • Among adults ages 20 to 74, diabetes remains the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness, and non-traumatic lower-extremity amputation.
  • The good news is that you have the power to help prevent chronic disease, as making positive diet and lifestyle changes can help reduce risk. Eating healthy foods, getting enough exercise, and refraining from tobacco and excessive alcohol use confer numerous health benefits—including possibly preventing the onset of chronic diseases.
  • Insufficient sleep can lead to the following medical conditions:
    • Obesity – there are several studies that have revealed a link between lack of sleep and weight gain, as poor sleep leads to an increase in the production of cortisol or the ‘stress hormone’, as well as an increase in the secretion of insulin.
    • Diabetes – lack of sleep can lead to type 2 diabetes.
    • Heart disease and hypertension – insufficient sleep can cause elevated blood pressure the next day.
    • Mood disorders – regular sleep deprivation can lead to long-term mood disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and mental distress.

     

  • issued new recommendations for appropriate age-specific sleep durations.
    Age Recommended May be appropriate Not recommended
    Newborns
    (0-3 months)
    14 to 17 hours 11 to 13 hours
    18 to 19 hours
    Less than 11 hours
    More than 19 hours
    Infants
    (4-11 months)
    12 to 15 hours 10 to 11 hours
    16 to 18 hours
    Less than 10 hours
    More than 18 hours
    Toddlers
    (1-2 years)
    11 to 14 hours 9 to 10 hours
    15 to 16 hours
    Less than hours
    More than 16 hours
    Preschoolers
    (3-5 years)
    10 to 13 hours 8 to 9 hours
    12 hours
    Less than 7 hours
    More than 12 hours
    School-aged children
    (6-13 years)
    9 to 11 hours 7 to 8 hours
    12 hours
    Less than 7 hours
    More than 12 hours
    Teenagers
    (14-17 years)
    8 to 10 hours 7 hours
    11 hours
    Less than 7 hours
    More than 11 hours
    Young Adults
    (18-25 years)
    7 to 9 hours 6 hours
    10 to 11 hours
    Less than 6 hours
    More than 11 hours
    Adults
    (26-65 years)
    7 to 9 hours 6 hours
    10 hours
    Less than 6 hours
    More than 10 hours
    Older Adults
    (≥65 years)
    7 to 8 hours 5 to 6 hours
    9 hours
    Less than 5 hours
    More than 9 hours

Keeping hands clean through improved hand hygiene is one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Many diseases and conditions are spread by not washing hands with soap and clean, running water. If clean, running water is not accessible, as is common in many parts of the world, use soap and available water. If soap and water are unavailable, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol to clean hands.

 Statistics of Infectious Disease

  • The following statistics are the latest available from the National Center for Health Statistics (part of the CDC) and the National Foundation of Infectious Diseases:
    • The CDC estimates that 2,700 new cases of hepatitis A occurred in the U.S. in 2011.
    • In the U.S., it is estimated that 700,000 to 1.4 million people have chronic hepatitis B infections. It is estimated that in 2011, 19,000 new cases occurred in the U.S.
    • In the U.S., it is estimated that between 2.5 and 3.9 million people have chronic hepatitis C infections. It is estimated that in 2011, about 17,000 new cases occurred in the U.S.
    • Tuberculosis has infected one-third of the world’s population. In 2012, nearly 10,000 new cases were reported in the U.S.
    • About 36,000 people per year in the U.S. die from influenza and pneumonia.
    • According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 50,000 new cases of HIV infections occur annually in the U.S., and nearly 33 million people are infected with HIV in the world.
    • The chickenpox vaccine has decreased the frequency of new cases of chickenpox in all age groups, especially in children ages 1 to 4 years.
    • Even though the measles vaccine is now available, in 2013 there were nearly 200 new cases of measles (rubeola) in the U.S. Measles outbreaks in 2014 increased the rate of new cases.
    • The numbers of new cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported in the U.S. in 2012 include:
      • Human papillomavirus (HPV): about 14 million
      • Chlamydia: over 1.4 million
      • Gonorrhea: over 330,000
      • HIV: around 50,000
      • Syphilis (primary and secondary): more than 15,600

In 2012, about 48,000 new cases of whooping cough were reported to the CDC, including 20 deaths nationally. The majority of these deaths were in children less than 1 year of age.

 

Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2008

Current smokers (16%) were twice as likely as former smokers (8%) and four times as likely as never smokers (4%) to have poor oral health status.
Current smokers (35%) were almost one and one-half times as likely as former smokers (24%) and more than two times as likely as never smokers (16%) to have had three or more oral health problems.
Current smokers (19%) were about twice as likely as former smokers (9%) and never smokers (10%) to have not had a dental visit in more than 5 years or have never had one.
Cost was the reason that most adults with an oral health problem did not see a dentist in the past 6 months; 56% of current smokers, 36% of former smokers, and 35% of never smokers could not afford treatment or did not have insurance.

 

Data from the National Vital Statistics System (Mortality)

From 2000 through 2013, the age-adjusted rate for drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin nearly quadrupled from 0.7 deaths per 100,000 in 2000 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 in 2013. Most of the increase occurred after 2010.
The number of drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin was nearly four times higher for men (6,525 deaths) than women (1,732 deaths) in 2013.
In 2000, non-Hispanic black persons aged 45–64 had the highest rate for drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin (2.0 per 100,000). In 2013, non-Hispanic white persons aged 18–44 had the highest rate (7.0 per 100,000).
From 2000 through 2013, the age-adjusted rate for drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin increased for all regions of the country, with the greatest increase seen in the Midwest.
Drug poisoning (overdose) is the number one cause of injury-related death in the United States, with 43,982 deaths occurring in 2013 (1). While much attention has been given to deaths involving opioid analgesics (2), in recent years there has been a steady increase in the number of drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin. A recent study using data from 28 states reported that the death rate for heroin overdose doubled from 2010 through 2012 (3). Using data from the National Vital Statistics System, this data brief provides a description of trends and demographics for heroin-related drug-poisoning deaths in the United States from 2000 through 2013.

Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2000, 2005, and 2010

In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity.
Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of adults receiving advice to exercise increased by about 10 percentage points.
Among adults aged 85 and over, the percentage receiving advice to exercise nearly doubled between 2000 (15.3%) and 2010 (28.9%).
Receiving advice to exercise increased for adults with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes.
Adults who were overweight or obese had the largest percentage point increases over the decade 2000–2010 in being advised to exercise.
Research points to the benefits of physical activity for reducing the risk of chronic health conditions (1–4). Engaging in regular physical activity can reduce medication dependence, help maintain functional independence, and improve the quality of life for older adults (5,6). Physicians and other health professionals can be influential sources of health information, and exercise counseling by primary care physicians has been shown to increase patients’ participation in physical activity (6–9). This report examines trends in the prevalence of U.S. adults receiving a physician’s or other health professional’s advice to exercise or perform other physical activity among adults who had seen a health professional in the past 12 months.

Are adults being advised by their physician to exercise?

In 2010, about one in three adults who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity (Figure 1).
The percentage of adults who had been advised to exercise increased from 22.6% in 2000 to 32.4% in 2010.
At each time point, women were more likely than men to have been advised to exercise.

Are younger or older adults more likely to be advised by their physician to exercise?

The percentage of adults who had been advised by their physician to exercise increased with age from the youngest (18–24 years) through the middle (45–64 years) and upper middle (65–74 years) age groups and then declined (Figure 2).
Adults aged 18–24 had the smallest increase over the decade 2000–2010 in the percentage receiving a recommendation to exercise (from 10.4% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2010), while adults aged 85 and over had the largest percentage point increase (from 15.3% in 2000 to 28.9% in 2010).

Are trends in receiving a physician’s recommendation to exercise similar across all race/ethnicity groups?

Among adults who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year, the percentage receiving advice to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity increased among all race/ethnicity groups (Figure 3).
Hispanic adults had the largest percentage point increase over the decade 2000–2010 in receiving a recommendation to exercise.

All these graphs/data can be found here:

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db190.htm